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Under HInduism,Saiva Sidhantha code it has been declared that Lord
Ganesh is the first form of God to be worshiped before the beginning of any auspicious
or otherwise function.So also Padhmasana is the first Asana to be practiced.In the
ancient Mantra Sastra about Shiva Panchakshari Mantra we find that the Lord Shiva has
been described as "Santham Padhamasanstham" meaning calm and seated in Padhmasana and in
Sakthi Panchakshari mantra Lord Shiva is described as " Charu Padmasaanastham" meaning
as golden color seated as Padmasana.
Thus Lord Shiva is described as being seated in Padmasana.The importance of this asana cannot be fully explained.A healthy body with the concentration of mind are broadly the benefits derived by this asana.This is the common Asana for doing Japa or Meditation.
When properly done this asana will look like a lotus flower.Perhaps on account of this the name has been given.Padhma means lotus.Both gents and ladies can do this.About a fixed and steady pose of Lord Krishna has described.
This is the best asana for Japa or Dhyana. Because this asana helps to sit erect. The internal organs are in their natural position without being pressed.Hence the liver,pancreas,kidney and intestines function normally. Some people develop hunchbak at a tender age.By continued practice of this asana the hunchback will go away in due course.
The word "Ardha" means half. This asana is suitable for persons with big thighs.The benefits of Padhmasana can be got in this also. But this is only the beginning stage of Padhamasana and Padhmasana gives complete effects.
This asana is also treated as a sub type under Padhmasana. Since the organs inside the body are not pressed they are kept in their natural position. Sometimes the backbone gives a hunch back when sitting for long duration in this asana. This is also only a beginning for padhmasana.
This is another sub type under Padhmasana.These sub types enable us to get mastery over Padhmasana.Hence these are only diferent stages. The hands are kept in Chin Mudra style, or on the lap, one over the other. This pose is regarded as a tapas style.Hence placing of hands is according to the individuals.All benefits of Padhmasana are got in this asana.